The greater the fathers' involvement was, the lower the level of adolescents' behavioral problems, both in terms of aggression and antisocial behavior and negative feelings such as anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem. Though these behavioral problems were greatest among youths who said they did not have a father, the negative emotions were at the same level among those with no fathers and those with fathers who had low levels of involvement.

Source: "Family Structure, Father Involvement, and Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes" Carlson, Marcia J. Journal of Marriage and Family Vol. 68, Number 1. February, 2006. Page(s) 137-154.